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Who is at risk?

If you suffer from any of the following conditions you may have an underlying B12 deficiency and you need to be tested. It is important to note that many drugs impair absorption of vitamin B12 and folate.

(Please note that conditions such as hypo-thyroidism, hyper-thyroidism pyroluria and coeliac disease have overlapping symptoms and can co exist with vitamin B12 deficiency). 

We have also developed an app to help determine your risk of B12 deficiency.

For your 'crash course' in B12 deficiency please use the What to do next page.

If you  need personalised help please see the contact page for more information.


You can view a 90 minute broadcast on B12 deficiency with me, from the Academy of Physical Medicine here. There is a small charge. See a clip here.

Anyone, at any age, can become B12 deficient. However, certain people are at an elevated risk and they include the following; -

Those diagnosed with....

  • Dementia - Alzheimer’s disease  
  • Depression (Post Natal & psychosis)  
  • Bipolar disorder  
  • Peripheral Neuropathy (diabetic, CIDP)  
  • Vertigo  
  • Anaemia - any form  
  • Congestive heart failure (CHF)  
  • Autism, ADHD  
  • Cerebral palsy  
  • Seizures / Epilepsy  
  • AIDS dementia complex / HIV  
  • Restless leg syndrome  
  • Radiculopathy, chronic pain disorder  
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)  
  • Fibromyalgia  
  • Chronic renal failure (haemodialysis patients)  
  • Essential tremor - Parkinson’s like symptoms  
  • Erectile dysfunction and impotence  
  • Hepatitis C  
  • SACD (subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord)  
  • Cervical Spondylosis  
  • Multiple sclerosis  
  • Cancer  
  • Optic neuritis or optic atrophy  
  • Macular degeneration  
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia


  • that are vegetarians, vegans and people on macrobiotic diets  
  • aged fifty and over  
  • who've undergone any gastric and/or intestinal surgery, including bariatric surgery for weight loss purposes (gastric bypass)  
  • who regularly use proton-pump inhibitors, H2 blockers, antacids, Metformin and related diabetes drugs, or other medication which can interfere with B12 absorption
  • Nitrous oxide administration or abuse 
  • with a history of eating disorders (anorexia or bulimia)  
  • with a history of alcoholism  
  • with a family history of pernicious anaemia  
  • diagnosed with anaemia (including iron deficiency anaemia, sickle cell anaemia, and thalassemia)  
  • with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, coeliac disease, or any other disease that causes malabsorption of nutrients  
  • with autoimmune disorders (especially thyroid disorders such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease), type 1 diabetes, vitiligo, lupus, Addison's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, acquired agammaglobulinemia, or a family history of these disorders  
  • with neurologic or motor symptoms
  • with Downs syndrome
  • with Phenylketonuria (PKU) 
  • with psychiatric disorders, including depression, bipolar etc  
  • with elevated MCV (mean corpuscular volume)  
  • with occlusive vascular disorders (MI, CVA, DVT, PE)
  • Orthostatic hypotension / Postural hypotension
  • Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs, or 'mini stroke')
  • Cerebral vascular accident (CVA or 'stroke')
  • Myocardial infraction ('heart attack')
  • DVT - Deep vein thrombosis (blood clot to the leg or arm)
  • with Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • who've undergone neck or back surgery
  • Who've undergone Chemo or radiation therapy

Women . . .

Infants . . .

Information provided with kind permission of Sally M. Pacholok R.N. & Dr. Jeffrey J. Stuart.

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